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All the World’s Metals and Minerals in One Visualization



This article is published in collaboration with Visual Capitalist

by Nicholas LePan





All the World’s Metals and Minerals in One Visualization


We live in a material world, in that we rely on materials to make our lives better. Without even realizing it, humans consume enormous amounts of metals and minerals with every convenient food package, impressive building, and technological innovation.


Every year, the United States Geological Service (USGS) publishes commodity summaries outlining global mining statistics for over 90 individual minerals and materials. Today’s infographic visualizes the data to reveal the dramatic scale of 2019 non-fuel mineral production.


Read all the way to the bottom; the data will surprise you.


Non-Fuel Minerals: USGS Methodology


A wide variety of minerals can be classified as “non-fuel”, including precious metals, base metals, industrial minerals, and materials used for construction.


Non-fuel minerals are those not used for fuel, such as oil, natural gas and coal. Once non-fuel minerals are used up, there is no replacing them. However, many can be recycled continuously.


The USGS tracked both refinery and mine production of these various minerals. This means that some minerals are the essential ingredients for others on the list. For example, iron ore is critical for steel production, and bauxite ore gets refined into aluminum.


Top 10 Minerals and Metals by Production


Sand and gravel are at the top of the list of non-fuel mineral production.


As these materials are the basic components for the manufacturing of concrete, roads, and buildings, it’s not surprising they take the lead.



These materials fertilize the food we eat, and they also form the structures we live in and the roads we drive on. They are the bones of the global economy.


Let’s dive into some more specific categories covered on the infographic.


Base Metals


While cement, sand, and gravel may be the bones of global infrastructure, base metals are its lifeblood. Their consumption is an important indicator of the overall health of an economy.


Base metals are non-ferrous, meaning they contain no iron. They are often more abundant in nature and sometimes easier to mine, so their prices are generally lower than precious metals.


Base metals are also the critical materials that will help to deliver a green and renewable future. The electrification of everything will require vast amounts of base metals to make everything from batteries to solar cells work.


Precious Metals


Gold and precious metals grab the headlines because of their rarity ⁠— and their production shows just how rare they are.


While metals form the structure and veins of the global economy, ultimately it is humans and animals that make the flesh of the world, driving consumption patterns.


A Material World: A Perspective on Scale


The global economy’s appetite for materials has quadrupled since 1970, faster than the population, which only doubled. On average, each human uses more than 13 metric tons of materials per year.


In 2017, it’s estimated that humans consumed 100.6B metric tons of material in total. Half of the total comprises sand, clay, gravel, and cement used for building, along with the other minerals mined to produce fertilizer. Coal, oil, and gas make up 15% of the total, while metal makes up 10%. The final quarter are plants and trees used for food and fuel.


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